Friday, July 10, 2020

Getting the Most Out of Your AP Literature Exam

Getting the Most Out of Your AP Literature ExamThe AP Literature Exam will test your ability to write, but the reading component is perhaps more important than the writing component. This is due to the fact that you will be called upon to actually read the work and not just memorize it. However, the content of the exam will also test your reasoning ability which is also important.There are several formats for the AP literature exam. In fact, there are as many different formats as there are topics to be covered. The format used depends on the type of class that you will be taking the exam with. This article is going to discuss one particular format that you will need to know when taking the AP literature exam.Some people think that they can just scan through their works and memorize the passages and the reasons behind them. You may do this well in your classroom or university classes, but what if you have to take the AP literature exam? That is the point when you need to remember to a ctually read the work.While you may be doing that, your classmates are going to be doing the same thing. While that might be a good practice, you will want to use your imagination and give yourself at least a few minutes to get started. The AP literature exam comes with four parts which must be reviewed.Each part of the exam has four passages to review. So, your goal is to read these sections, and then find the section that you have a difficulty with and read that.In the reading comprehension portion, you will be asked to read several paragraphs of a book or essay and then figure out what the writer was trying to say. Think about this like this, you are walking down the street, you see a man on the corner with a paper bag over his head that he is blowing smoke in your face. You then decide to walk to the next corner, but he is also busy writing in his bag.Reading comprehension has to do with getting past the man on the corner so that you can go ahead and find the story that you woul d like to read. As you continue to read the different parts of the exam, you will find that the different passages become much easier to understand. Just make sure that you know which passages you need to get the most attention to when taking the exam.

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

The Impact Of Social Media On Society Essay - 1051 Words

The evolution of technology in the 20th century brought many innovations. Among them is the social media. Essentially the 21st century revolves around these social media as individuals, corporations, and government agencies use these avenues to communicate and pass messages to their audience. I am an ardent user of social media too. Through the years that I have used social media, the sites have had a myriad effect on me. As expected these effects cut across both sides; some are positive effects while others are negative effects. However, the power of social media cannot be underestimated. With the ever increasing technological awareness among people, there is a possibility that the world will be connected through the social media. Twitter and Instagram are the top social media platform that I use frequently. Essentially Twitter constitutes of millions of users that help me to connect with people all over the world. On Twitter, a user has to ‘follow’ another user whom th ey want to view their posts. In essence following implies to subscribing to another user’s posts as they will appear on your timeline. As such, Twitter helps me connect with people I deem important in my life. Most of my friends are also on Twitter. Thus when we want to keep a conversation we use Twitter to connect with one another. One of the major features that makes me use Twitter is the ability to subscribe to tweets from organizations and agencies that matter in my life. In essence, Twitter relaysShow MoreRelatedImpact Of Social Media On Society Essay917 Words   |  4 PagesHave you thought about the impact that social media has on society? Today I would like to address the impact of social media on society for those of you that are social media users and this includes the advantages or disadvantages that as associated with it. In this speech, I want to relate to you how social media is being used by social media users. Social media has forever changed the way society works, whether it’s the sharing of an idea, the communication of news, or the availability of productsRead MoreSocial Media And Its Impact On Society Essay1742 Words   |  7 PagesSocial media has gained immense popularity, following increased access to the internet and technology devices including smart phones. Social media is used to denote platforms in which people build and share social connections; thus enhancing information sharing and interaction. Major examples include Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, LinkedIn, Google+, Pinterest and Instagram. Through social media, people can connect, interact and exchange information such as pictures, videos and other digital media byRead MoreSocial Media And Its Impact On Society1420 Words   |  6 PagesSocial media as we know has changed. Now instead of messaging we are able to video chat, and instead of not knowing where someone is now we are able to see there locations and where they live. This is all because of social media. Social media has taken the world by storm including social media sites like Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram all sites where we communicate through text, videos, pictures, and much more. Rhetoric is used in social media and sometimes it can be overlooked. Sometimes we mightRead MoreSocial Media And Its Impact On Society1563 Words   |  7 PagesSocial media has consumed our society. 47% of American adults used social networking sites in 2011 like Facebook, Myspace, and Twitter; up from 26% in 2008(quoted from procon.org) the aspects of social media both have a positive and negative impact on life. Social networking sites promote interaction with distant fami ly and friends. Social networking sites can demonstrate opportunities to strengthen existing relationships and to develop new friendships as well. The downfall of social media sitesRead MoreSocial Media And Its Impact On Society970 Words   |  4 Pagespiece titled Friends Indeed for the Washington Post. Garreau brings up possible dangers, minor inconveniences, and what truly defines a friend in the new media world we live in. I felt Garreau came across as jaded by most of the interviews he conducted. He did not seem to speak with a wide array of people that gave positive impacts social media can have, but rather focused on the negatives of the subject. Garreau did bring up valid points, however, from personal safety to the aspect of differentRead MoreSocial Media And Its Impact On Society Essay1560 Words   |  7 Pageswaiting for their next high, society has become more and more dependent on social media. One must realize, while the use of social media in today’s society is a necessity due to the fast-paced environment that has been created, it can never fully replace the value received from personal interaction with others. The short film titled, The Library Book, perfectly illustrates this as the characters within the film learn to assimilate in a society dominated by social media. The actions of each characterRead MoreThe Impact Of Social Media On Society987 Words   |  4 Pages The Negative Impact of Social Media on Society Marylin Vos Savant once said, â€Å"Email, instant messaging, and cell phones give us fabulous ability, but because we live and work in our own little worlds, that communication is totally disorganized†. The society we live in today requires modern technology. Texting, tweeting, and other forms of abbreviated communications are now changing how we speak. Of course technology and social media to be precise, is not necessarily evil; they have boosted the world’sRead MoreThe Impact Of Social Media On Society1652 Words   |  7 PagesIn 1968, popular artist Andy Warhol had brought to attention his opinion on the over-populated celebrity society of the time with his quote â€Å"In the future, everyone will be famous for fifteen minutes†. Times change, and the future approached, but Andy may have underestimated just how true that is. Nowadays, the quote has been translated to fit the modern times, â€Å"everyone will be famous for 15mb†. The quote being changed to that says a lot about the times that we are going through right now, whichRead MoreSocial Media And Its Impact On Society1224 Words   |  5 Pages Social media is a variety of platforms provided to the public as a medium for expression and communication. Seemingly, social media could be viewed as a positive contribution to society, but one must consider the underlying effects of society. Many of us don’t take into account the role that social media plays in the way we perceive things, think, and live our lives. Social media plays a critical part in societal norms. â€Å"Social norms are rules of conduct that governs interactions among individualsRead MoreSocial Media And Its Impact On Society Essay1622 Words   |  7 Pages What it Means to be Black In 2016, society is at a place where people are able to discover tons of information at the touch of a finger; this indeed can impact on how we view common things in society, such as identity. This statement holds true for â€Å"blacks† or African Americans as well. The stigma that comes with being black has been around for centuries; however, many blacks are using social media to combat negativity. In an era predicated on the use of the internet, black people have proven to

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay on Examples of Hostile Sexism - 702 Words

(A) Despite the fact that there is an increasing number of women in the workforce, there are few in leadership positions. This is because of ambivalent sexism. There are two different types of ambivalent sexism: hostile and benevolent. A Hostile sexist is someone who as combative and antagonistic view towards a woman. He believes that women are trying to gain control over men using feministic views and their sexuality (which they are threatened by). Examples of hostile sexism: â€Å"Women do not appreciate everything that men do for them† or â€Å"Women use sex to gain power over men†. Hostile sexism punishes women who do not conform to social roles with aggression and hostility, and it rewards women who conform. Benevolent sexism is when a†¦show more content†¦Descriptive stereotyping is used by both men and women, and may be unintentional and go unnoticed until someone is made aware of it making this type of gender stereotyping hard to change. A prescr iptive stereotype is a belief about the behaviors men and women are expected to comply to. Prescriptive stereotypes are perpetuated when someone uses a descriptive stereotype to justify a behavior and justify the use of traditional social (and gender) hierarchy. This results in discrimination of women because men will assert hostile and aggressive behavior against women who break the gender norm. This type of stereotyping maintains the power imbalance that men and women have in the workplace because it is not socially accepted for a women to demonstrate â€Å"masculine qualities† to get ahead. Men are more likely to use this type of discrimination. It is hard for men to change their prescriptive stereotypes because they are still very largely accepted in society and these stereotypes keep men in power. (C) Agency is a person’s ability to make their own individual choices. Traits associated with agency include being: confident, aggressive dominant, forceful, ambitious intelligent. On the other hand, communal traits, which are traits that better the community versus better the individual, include being: helpful, sensitive, affectionate, caring, sympathetic and nurturing. According to the gender stereotype, agentic traits are associated withShow MoreRelatedBenevolence Sexism And Its Impact On Women s Accomplishments1433 Words   |  6 Pages Ideologies surrounding benevolence sexism are constructed on a basis of doubt; for instance a woman being appraised for her accomplishments, while highlighting the disbelief that she can accomplish that specific task. Benevolence sexism gives rise to positive attitude towards women’s accomplishments, while placing a gender gap on what they are able to accomplish, when compared to men. According to, Viki Abrams (2002), Benevolent sexism is any form of expressive acts that are discriminatoryRead More Sexism in Our Society Essay870 Words   |  4 PagesSexism in Our Society Sexism has always been a major issue for women. It seems that today, everyone has to be careful of what they say and do so as to avoid offending someone. While everyone is busy worrying about extinguishing sexism towards women - which still is an issue that needs to be taken care of, who is concerned with sexism towards men? Sexism is just as much of an issue to men as it is to women. Many people believe that men have advantages over women when comes to aRead MoreThe Social Cognitive Theory Developed By Albert Bandura987 Words   |  4 Pagesbeneath the article and researchers put their responses into a number of categories including â€Å"Hostile Sexism, Benevolent Sexism, Agreement and Denial of Sexism,†(Peters et al 163), among others. Benevolent sexism argues that placing women on pedestals to be protected and supported by men, which degrades a woman’s strength because she is not seen as strong and independent (Casad,Lee.Sexism). Hostile sexism is defined as seeing women as inferior and incompetent compared to men (Casad,Lee.Sexism). FromRead MoreReligion And The Islamic State Of Iraq And Syria1643 Words   |  7 Pagescharacteristic of most of the world with only 16% of the world having no religious affiliation (Pew Research, 2015). A number of celebrations and holidays come from religion, and are often the reasons a lot of people ta ke off certain days of the years. For example, schools or work offices are sometimes almost or completely shut down for holidays like the Good Friday preceding Easter Sunday or Christmas. Religion is universal and is engrained into most cultures throughout the world. Pilgrimages to Rome or MeccaRead MoreThe Psychology Behind Prejudice : Humans Attitude1089 Words   |  5 PagesWithin psychology, we can link prejudice with discrimination and stereotyping (Plous, 2003). Although each may go together, they can be done separately. Prejudice and discrimination are most likely absent in a positive stereo type (Plous, 2013). For example describing an ethnic group as â€Å"family oriented†. Stereo typing does little to no harm without discrimination or prejudice. A generalized form of prejudice may lack discrimination and stereo types, such as being against foreigners. Prejudice aloneRead MoreEssay about The ranch in Of Mice and Men is a very hostile environment.1629 Words   |  7 PagesThe ranch in Of Mice and Men is a very hostile environment. The ranch in ‘Of Mice and Men’ is a very hostile environment. What do we learn about life during the Great Depression from John Steinbeck’s novel? In this essay I aim to describe how life was like on a ranch during the great depression in John Steinbeck’s novel ‘Of Mice and Men’. Steinbeck was born on February 27, 1902 in Salinas, California. This is where the book is set, in the Salinas valley. The books exact location is inRead MoreThe Target Area Of My Prejudice Reduction Strategy Is Benevolent Sexism1937 Words   |  8 Pagesbenevolent sexism. Unlike hostile sexism, in which is antagonistic and overtly purports the idea that men are more competent than women and belonging in leadership, benevolent sexism often appears chivalrous and well-intentioned. Benevolent sexism is, as the saying goes, â€Å"an iron fist in a velvet glove.† It appears flattering and kind, for women’s ‘own good’ so to speak, but underneath the faà §ade is actually just another way of controlling women and maintaining male dominance. Whereas hostile sexism is forceRead MoreEquality for Women in our Society Essay1150 Words   |  5 Pagesforce or other areas that where once considered a man’s domain, new ideas could be brought to attention that would otherwise be neglected. Women often play the referee in family matters, so why not apply their compassion and practical sense in mo re hostile environment. In heated debates, often a levelheaded mediator is needed. The compassion of a woman can help in smoothing over differences and assist in resolving matters that could otherwise end in a stand still or worse. From a business perspectiveRead MoreAnalysis Of The Article Megyn Kelly Missed819 Words   |  4 PagesEmployment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), stating how organizations should learn to adapt to better human resources management practices to prevent discriminatory actions. Some of the implications The EEOC covers about differential treatment include, sexism, the glass ceiling, and dispute settlements, which will all prevent impediments from hindering company success, and in return, empower the human resources department in organizations. Megyn Kelly was a victim of sex discrimination on her night showRead MoreResearch on the Effects of Violence in Video Games2397 Words   |  10 Pagesaggression and violence there are other negative factors that need to be fully investigated, such as sexism and violence towards women in video games. Stermer and Burkley (2012) investigated the association between playing sexist video games and sexist attitudes, their results indicated that male participants who played video games perceived to be high in sexism showed higher levels of benevolent sexism in contrast to male participants’ who did not play these games. Female characters are often depicted

Case Study of Mrs. Fiona Free-Samples for Students Myassignment

Question: Discuss the Case Study of Mrs Fiona. Answer: Patient History Mrs. Fiona is a 51-year-old woman who lives with her husband and a 22-year-old son in Sydney, Australia.She is suffering from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) since twenty years and experiences various symptoms many times in a year. She is under medication of prednisone10 mg. Presently, COPD is under control. However, she is suffering from weakness and gets confused. Her husband also complains that she gets irritated easily now-a days. One day she was suffering from high fever of 102 degree Celsius, prolonged vomiting and diarrhea. Her husband called the doctor and was immediately asked to bring her to the hospital. Physical Examination She was diagnosed with a high blood pressure of 130/90 and a pulse rate of 86. The concentration of fluids and electrolytes in the body was found after performing a lab test. The details are as follows: Sodium : 151mmol/L (Normal range 135- 145 mmol/L) Potassium : 2.9mmol/L (Normal range 3.5 - 5 mmol/L) Chloride : 91mmol/l (Normal range 96-106mmol/L) Calcium : 9.5 mg/dl (Normal range 8.2-10.2 mg/dl) Magnesium : 1.5mmm/L (Normal range 1.3-2.1mmol/L) Haemoglobin : 8g/dl (Normal range 12-16 g/dl) Haematocrit : 25% (Normal range 38% to 47 % Arterial Blood Gases Test (ABG Test) pH level : 8 (Normal level 7.35-7.45 ) Partial Pressure of Oxygen : 64 (Normal level 75-100 mmHg) Partial Pressure of Carbon dioxide : 45 (Normal Level 38-42) Capillary Refill Test Abnormal results were obtained in the patient after this test. This shows that the patient is suffering from dehydration (Normal -pink color in less than 2 seconds). Total Urine Output Sodium : High Potassium : Low Hypothetical Diagnosis and Outcome Deficient Fluid Volume Mrs. Fiona was suffering from excessive vomiting which lead to the removal of fluid and electrolytes from the body. She is suffering from hypernatremia as she has high level of sodium content and it occurs because of fluid loss. Hypokalemia is also observed in the patient as she has low level of potassium in the body and it occurs due to diarrhea and under the medication of steroids (Frenkel et al .2014).She is suffering from hypochloremia as she has low level of chloride concentration in the body. A high haematocrit volume is also observed which refers to elevated blood cell count in an abnormal manner and it occurs because of dehydration (Hooper et al. 2014). ABG test reveals that the patient is suffering from high pH, high CO2 (Hypercapnia )and low O2 level in the arterial blood. Increase in pH occurs because of increased potassium and pulmonary disease and anemia Risk for Infection Since the patient is under the medication of prednisone, which is a corticosteroid, she is more prone to infection. Corticosteroids have a side effect that they reduce the immunity power of the body and lower the resistance to infection (Ciriaco et al. 2013). Confusion Mrs. Fiona is suffering from hypokalemia and hypernatremia due to vomiting. Imbalance in the level of sodium and potassium has a negative effect on the central nervous system of the body and impairs the functioning of the brain (Welsh et al 2013). Outcome: Level of sodium and potassium will be in normal limits in the body. Rationale: Low level of sodium and potassium leads to various cardiovascular problems Outcome: The patient will get rid of infection due to corticosteroids when hospitalized. Rationale: Infection leads to stress on the low immune system of the body. Actions Required Potassium ,sodium and chloride are present in the gastric acid in the body and excess loss of these electrolytes can lead to metabolic alkalosis, dehydration, hypernatremia and hypoalkemia (Cook, Appel, and Whelton 2014).Monitoring and evaluation of fluid and electrolytes concentration in the patient should be done on a regular basis. If she is suffering from excess loss of potassium in the body, the pulse should be checked on a regular basis as it leads to various cardiac problems (Go et al.2014). She should be given various fluids and anti-vomiting medicines to prevent vomiting. Practice Standards for Critical Care Nurses Nursing interventions include weighing the patient on a regular basis and monitoring the blood pressure and pulse twice a day. Nurse should also keep a check on the loss of fluid and electrolytes in the body by vomiting or the output of urine. Daily observation of body temperature of the patient should be done. The patient should be given a proper balanced diet and fluids such as water and juices to increase the fluid content and hemoglobin level in the blood.(Camaschella 2015).She should be advised to avoid caffeine and alcohol as it hampers the electrolyte content in the body. The nurse should be sympathetic towards the patient and take care of her. Reflective Assessment on Patient Assessment The patient is stable, as she has received proper treatment on time. She was suffering from imbalance in fluid and electrolyte concentration in the body such as high sodium, low potassium and low chloride content. She was also diagnosed with high blood pressure, pulse rate, low hemoglobin high and a high haematocrit volume.Her ABG test revealed high CO2,low O2 and high pH.She should take proper rest and increase the intake of fluids such as water, juices and take a balanced diet to increase the hemoglobin level in the blood (Johnson et al. 2015). References: Camaschella, C., 2015. Iron-deficiency anemia.New England Journal of Medicine,372(19), pp.1832-1843. Ciriaco, M., Ventrice, P., Russo, G., Scicchitano, M., Mazzitello, G., Scicchitano, F. and Russo, E., 2013. Corticosteroid-related central nervous system side effects.Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics,4(5), p.94. Cook, N.R., Appel, L.J. and Whelton, P.K., 2014. Lower levels of sodium intake and reduced cardiovascular risk.Circulation, pp.CIRCULATIONAHA-113. Weber, M.A., Schiffrin, E.L., White, W.B., Mann, S., Lindholm, L.H., Kenerson, J.G., Flack, J.M., Carter, B.L., Materson, B.J., Ram, C.V.S. and Cohen, D.L., 2014. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of hypertension in the community.The journal of clinical hypertension,16(1), pp.14-26. Frenkel, W.J., van den Born, B.J., van Munster, B.C., Korevaar, J.C., Levi, M. and de Rooij, S.E., 2014. The association between plasma sodium levels at time of admission and mortality and morbidity in acutely admitted elderly patients: a prospective cohort study.Susceptibility to hyponatremia in the elderly: causes and consequences. Go, A.S., Bauman, M.A., King, S.M.C., Fonarow, G.C., Lawrence, W., Williams, K.A. and Sanchez, E., 2014. An effective approach to high blood pressure control.Hypertension,63(4), pp.878-885. Hooper, L., Bunn, D., Jimoh, F.O. and Fairweather-Tait, S.J., 2014. Water-loss dehydration and aging.Mechanisms of ageing and development,136, pp.50-58. Johnson, E.C., Muoz, C.X., Le Bellego, L., Klein, A., Casa, D.J., Maresh, C.M. and Armstrong, L.E., 2015. Markers of the hydration process during fluid volume modification in women with habitual high or low daily fluid intakes.European journal of applied physiology,115(5), pp.1067-1074. Welsh, D., Lennie, T.A., Marcinek, R., Biddle, M.J., Abshire, D., Bentley, B. and Moser, D.K., 2013. Low-sodium diet self-management intervention in heart failure: pilot study results.European Journal of Car

Wednesday, April 22, 2020

Resonant Leadership A Comprehensive Report an Example by

Resonant Leadership: A Comprehensive Report Chronic stress is discussed as a problem affecting most leaders, thus causing stress to others involved. Boyatzis and McKee give sound advice backed with research demonstrating the need for techniques to reduce stress as well as dealing with it in a positive way. By doing so one is invoking physiological and psychological changes that enable leaders to overcome the negative effects of chronic stress. The Resonant Leaders Relevance in Todays Leadership Styles According to Franklin Covey, an online company specializing in coaching and leadership skills training, leadership works best when people are able to manage themselves. When that happens, everyone on your team is working proactively. Everyone is participating in leadership. You create this type of environment through win-win agreements-and build relationships primarily on trust instead of authority. This type of thinking has become popular amongst many corporations. Where several years ago autocratic leadership style was deemed effective, however with the rise of a more diverse workplace many companies have switch to democratic and free-rein style leadership. Democratic style leadership has been the most commonly used until recently; giving leaders more of a coaching position and giving subordinates decision making abilities. More recently, free-rein leadership has become popular. This extends from democratic leadership by giving more responsibility to employees; entrusting them with the ability to determine what, how and when something needs to be done by. Need essay sample on "Resonant Leadership: A Comprehensive Report" topic? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you Proceed Resonant Leadership displays many of the same factors as both democratic and free-rein leadership styles. By giving employees decision making abilities, the leader is expressing trust, allowing an opening for communication. Diverse work places call for more sensitivity towards the values, needs and motives of others. By implementing a network amongst employees, one can experience a union by being in the others shoes. This demonstrates Boyatzis and McKees theory presented in Resonant Leadership; opening ones mind in order to understand the present state of others. Although the idea of resonant leadership is based more on emotional awareness, it is this concept that will allow for better communication and understanding of the individuals involved. Thus creating a more cooperative and productive environment. Resonant Leaderships Personal Influence After reading Resonant Leadership and responding to the in depth exercises, I found I was more aware of myself and the people around me. I worked harder at being more compassionate to those I worked with. My focus on stress management has become more of an inner balance than trying to change the circumstances surrounding the stressor. Although it is difficult at times to understand and relate to associates, I am more aware of the importance in doing so. Reviews of Resonant Leadership The two most comprehensive reviews were published in Publishers Weekly and Business Week. Although the actual ratings differed; both publications believed that leaders need stronger ethics, concluding that Resonant Leadership positively supported that theory. Business Week Magazine was the more critical of the two, stating that Resonant Leadership had too much of a New Age feel to it. They also found that the authors tended to get off track during personal stories. Business Week was not thrilled with the overall book, suggesting the book was somewhat elementary. The review from Publishers Weekly was positive, agreeing with both the theory of resonant leadership and the exercises to obtain such a status. The remedies for chronic stress were also accepted as highly effective.Personally, I found Publishers Weekly to be a more accurate and informational review. It concentrated more of the positives of Resonant Leadership, such as reader interaction and the authors well researched remedies. Business Week Magazine felt the book didnt have enough substance; however Boyatzis and McKee had ten years of research backing their theories and remedies. I found Resonant Leadership to be a realistic view of the problems facing leaders today and having informative and practical advice on improving relationships between leaders and their charges. Reviews Publishers Weekly Review Building on the principles they laid out in their 2002 bestseller, Primal Leadership (coauthored with emotional intelligence expert Daniel Goleman), Boyatzis and McKee explain how managers and executives can employ mindfulness, hope and compassion to createand maintainexceptional business success. Effective teams and powerful, positive organizational cultures do not happen by accident, they write; they are created by resonant leaders who employ emotional intelligence to motivate and nurture their employees. Yet resonance can be exhausting to maintain, the authors have found, and even outstanding leaders can turn dissonant under the pressure of chronic business stress. When that happens, they say, rest and relaxation arent enough to restore a leaders emotional resilience. Drawing upon cognitive psychology, Buddhist philosophy and their own research, the authors propose a series of more effective remedies. Among them: cultivating openness, curiosity and awareness about oneself and othe rs; visualizing a positive, realistic dream; and working to understand and improve the situations of others. Boyatzis and McKee argue convincingly that such practices can favorably impact the bottom line while enabling leaders to sustain their effectiveness for longer periods of time. At a time when business leaders are under scrutiny for moral lapses on financial and social fronts, the exercises and arguments in this book can help executives learn to improve their interests by strengthening their ethics. Business Week Magazine Review Editors Review Reuters Group (RTRSY ) Chairman Niall FitzGerald recalls a period when he became consumed with guilt and self-pity. Then a senior executive at Unilever PLC, he had launched a laundry soap so abrasive that it sometimes left clothes in tatters. His marriage was in shreds, too, largely because of his neglect of his family. Friends who had supported FitzGerald in good times simply stopped calling. Then came a series of wake-up calls, including an emotional plea from a friend who was dying, urging the executive to pull his life together. FitzGerald began making the personal changes that ultimately helped him get beyond the debacle and reawaken his own zest for accomplishment. Today, with a new job, he runs marathons, raises money for charity, and strives to be an empathic and courageous leader. Hes even in a stronger marriagealbeit with another woman. In short, he has achieved what authors Richard Boyatzis and Annie McKee call resonant leadership. In their book of the same title, FitzGeralds story makes for one of the more compelling tales. Primal Leadership: Learning to Lead With Emotional Intelligence, the 2002 best-seller they wrote with Daniel Goleman, focused on the importance of the emotional aspects of leadership while showing readers how to be more engaged and effective at work. This one picks up where the last volume left off, reiterating the value of emotional intelligence. What makes this account more than a simple clarion call for work-life balance are its fascinating if sometimes fawning profiles, as well as a simple framework for how to sustain inspired ways of working. Boyatzis and McKee look at how even great leaders can get trapped in what they call the sacrifice syndromebecoming mindlessly focused on getting things done as stress mounts. The result is often a descent into dissonance, losing touch with customers, employees, and family or close friends. Sometimes, it takes several wake-up calls to get torpid executives to change their situations and recharge their morale. Those who succeed tend to cultivate what the authors cite, with a bow to Buddhist philosophy, as the three main elements of resonant leadershipmindfulness (being in touch with your environment and yourself), hope, and compassion. Group hugs all around, right? Some of the descriptions do veer a little close to New Age gobbledygook. But the stories keep the account rooted in reality. Besides FitzGerald, theres Roberto Nicastro of Italys UniCredit Bancas, whose ruffled hair, quick smile, and restless inclination to act make him appear to be in perpetual motion. Nicastro found that before he changed his ways, he was ruining his health and callously running over others. Its rare to hear executives so openly describe their emotions, and many readers will be touched. Other examples are less interesting because they focus only on the positive. The authors laud Colleen Barrett, president of Southwest Airlines Co., (LUV ) for the positive climate she has helped to foster at that company. John Studzinski, a senior executive at HSBC PLC (HBC ), is so accomplished at high-level volunteer work that he earned accolades from Pope John Paul II. A South African headmistress named Mrs. Zikhali (for some reason, they neglect to provide her first name) is hailed for her drive and vision in building a rural school. Resonant leaders, say the authors, tend to strike an emotional chord in their work. They rally the troops, project excitement, and pursue tasks with passion. But sometimes they veer off track, a result of anything from a career setback to classic burnout. The fortunate ones take the time to figure out what matters to them and get back to living the life they want to lead. The unlucky continue to lose focus. They may be oblivious to others or find themselves surrounded by staffers who feel out-of-step with management. They have few habits conducive to well-being at work. There are many exercises to help readers get in touch with what matters. Some of the drills, like one in which you describe your desired legacy, seem elementary. Others, such as a quiz to help clarify your values, may prompt worthwhile reflection. In these high-stress, multitasking times, a book on the perils of mindlessly giving too much to the job is likely to find fans. What you do outside the office is just as important. Thats one reason corporations from General Electric Co. (GE ) on down have begun to put far more emphasis on social responsibility, saluting leaders who reach out to the communities in which they operate. Workaholics arent just at risk for burnout. Increasingly, theyre losing their places on the corporate ladder as well. References Boyatzis, R.E., & McKee, A. (2005) Resonant Leadership: Connecting with Others Through Mindfulness, Hope and Compassion. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. Ebert, R.J., & Griffin, R.W. (1995) Business Essentials (5th ed., chap. 9) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. Small Business Administration, Change Management It Starts at the Top. (n.d.) Leadership Traits. Franklin Covey Coaching (2006)., Four Roles of Leadership. (n.d.) \ Editors Review. (2005). "Om" In The Corner Office. Business Week Magazine. [Review of the book Resonant Leadership.] [Review of the book Resonant Leadership] (2005) Publishers Weekly, (Electronic Version)

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Elvis by Albert Goldman essays

Elvis by Albert Goldman essays Elvis by Albert Goldman is a book about the life and times of the king of rock and roll. It shows how a country boy rose up and ruled the world of music, and also showed his downfall. It starts by telling about Elvis' childhood, and moving to his teenage years. Elvis was always a wholesome country boy no matter if people considered him leud, or outrageous. In fact, Elvis was discovered when he made a record for his mothers birthday, Elvis always respected his parents. Next it moves on to the first few records that Elvis cut at Sun Records with his first producer Sam Phillips. What made Elvis different from other singers was that he was "a white boy who could sing like a nigger." as Sam Phillips described his style. It then moves on to detail his breakthrough year of 1956 in which he had such hits as Heartbreak Hotel, and Hound Dog. 1956 was the year that Elvis took America by storm, and earned him the title "The King of Rock and Roll". After that, it states the hardships that Elvis faced over the next few years in the military. These few years were not very good for Elvis, for the first time he had to leave the US, and his beloved mother passed away before he left for his assignment in Germany. Moving on it tells us about his glorious return to the United States, reclaiming his title as "King", and moving on to something bigger and better the movies. Over the course of the next few years Elvis made a lot of movies, but none were liked by the critics, but they did make money. After his less than stellar movie career Elvis came back to music with a blast the 68' Comeback Special. Once again Elvis was on top of the music industry. After the 68' Comeback Special Elvis moved on to very successful shows at Las Vegas. Elvis played in Las Vegas until his death. He also started to tour again. It was during this time that he and his wife of only a few years, Pri...

Saturday, February 29, 2020

Challenges Library Management System Essay Example for Free

Challenges Library Management System Essay n 1981, UNESCO published a study prepared by Jean Lunn1 from Canada, Guidelines for Legal Deposit Legislation. His study is now 30 years old since its publication. Many countries have amended or significantly rewritten their legal deposit laws (Germany, Indonesia, and Norway in 1990; France in 1992, Sweden in 1994, Canada in 1995, South Africa in 1997, Denmark in 1998 and Japan & Finland in 2000). Others are in the process of doing so (Australia, India, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland and United Kingdom). The forms of intellectual and artistic expressions have grown in different dimensions. New published media have been developed and electronic publications are now an integral part of many national publishing heritages. UNESCO was under pressure to bring out a revised edition of the Guideline in order to review the impact of it on other countries and to incorporate new forms of publishing, such as, electronic publications. The new revised and updated edition of the Guidelines of Legal 2 Deposit Legislation (2000, UNESCO) by Jules Lariviere is found to be a useful tool. The Indian relevant act, Delivery of Books Act 1954 (rev. 1956 to include newspapers and periodicals) has been under the scanner shortly after it was put into application and over the last five decades the National Library, Kolkata and the three other recipient regional public libraries, Connemara Pubic Library, Chennai, Central Library, Town Hall, Mumbai and Delhi Public Library, Delhi, and especially the publishing world directly involved with it, expressed concern and drew attention of the Government of India, of its limitations and ineffectiveness. The National Library, Federation of Indian Publishers (FIP) and several professional library organizations discussed its drawbacks and recommended revision or specific amendments of the act at various seminars, conferences and other forums. Ministry of Culture, the concerned agency of the government of India, set up several committees to deal with the National Library. The Recommendations of the National Knowledge Commission3 and its Working Group on Libraries (NKC-WGL, 2006) is completely silent on this and other national library related issues. It would be appropriate to draw attention to an article by 3. Challenges in Library Management System (CLMS 2012) Bandopadhyay (2000) former Director of the National Library, is exhaustive enough with a complete set of plan of action for the concerned Ministry to initiate the revision process at the earliest. As a follow up, the Ministry took some steps to obtain the views, of other stakeholders, including academics, library users group and senior library professionals. Based on these suggestions / recommendations a revised draft bill on this issue was prepared that is awaiting final clearance of the Ministry since 2006. Role of Legal Deposit Act: In simple terms Legal Deposit is a statutory obligation which requires that any organization, commercial or public, and any individual producing any type of documentation in multiple copies, be obliged to deposit one or more copies with some recognised national institution/s. It is important to make sure that legal deposit legislation covers all kinds of published material, that is, material generally produced in multiple copies and â€Å"offered to the public regardless of the means of transmission. † Public distribution could mean â€Å"performance† or â€Å"display† e.g. radio or television programme could be considered as â€Å"published† for legal deposit purposes when it has been broadcast. Within the electronic publications environment, it should be noted that a â€Å"one copy item† such as, a database , stored on one server, could be subject to legal deposit requirement since it is made available to the public through a technology enabling the public to read, hear or view the material. 5 (Lariviere ). Most countries rely on a legal instrument of some sort in order to ensure the comprehensiveness of their national deposit collection. In all countries with legal deposit system, â€Å"published material† would naturally include books, periodicals, newspapers, microforms, sheet music, maps, brochures, pamphlets, etc. In some countries audio-visual material (sound recordings, films, videos, etc. ) is also subject to legal deposit and there are several countries where electronic publications are also included into the legislation, but they have done this in different way; some have excluded on-line electronic publications because of the numerous unsolved technical problems related to their acquisition and preservation problems related to ever changing technological scenarios. Legal deposit legislation serves a clear national public policy interest by ensuring comprehensive acquisition, recording, preservation and access of a nation’s published heritage. The role of a legal deposit system is to ensure the development of a national collection of published material in various formats. It should also support the compilation and publication of national bibliography in order to ensure bibliographic control over a comprehensive deposit collection. In addition, an effective legal deposit legislation guarantees to citizens and researchers within the country and abroad, access to research collection of  the national published material. Countries are developing many different models, but are clearly unable to keep pace with the massive changes and challenges related to the deposit of intangible publications. Department of National Heritage6, UK (1997) brought out a consultative paper on current legal deposit of publication issues based on a questionnaire which identified several pertinent issues and posed a number of specific questions to which sought responses from individuals and organizations. This document could also help Indian group and the government agencies in formulating the revised DB Act. Profile of Indian book publishing Before we deal with Indian Delivery of Books Act let us first look at the present trends in book publishing in India. Over the last four decades a large majority of English language publishing has concentrated in and around the capital, Delhi. The city is also a major centre of Hindi publishing industry. With the rapid growth of higher education from 1960s and the pressure built-up within the faculties due to UGC’s policy of ‘publish or perish’ resulted in the increase of publications of research monograph. India is one of the few countries where 4 4. Invited Lectures theses and dissertations submitted for Ph. D. and other similar higher postgraduate degrees in humanities and social sciences particularly, get published as a routine matter, whereas in science and technology this would be a rare phenomenon. There is no reliable source of annual book publishing data in India or any comprehensive list of Indian publishers in different languages. D. N. Malhotra7 (2010), former President of FIP and an established publisher in English and Hindi claimed of having 15,000 20,000 publishing houses, mostly run by individuals or as single family business. According to Vinutha Mallay8 Senior Editor of Mapin Publishing, India is the sixth largest publishing industry in the world with annual growth of 15-20%; third largest publishers of books in English, around 90,000 to 100,000 books are published annually, there are about 19,000 publishers in the country; in addition sixty per cent of global publishing outsourcing is based in India. This growth trend is noticeable only from the 70s onwards when book trade turnover increased gradually due to numerical growth of educational and research institutions at every level. As we look back a few decades, the demand of English books grew fast in libraries of newly established universities, research institutions and other academic centres. Individual buyers of books constitute only a small percentage. Bulk of the titles was imported from the English speaking countries, mostly from the UK and USA based publishing houses. This book import business is largely handled by a few Delhi based book importers and distributors. To accelerate the book supply process from the shelves and warehouses the importers / distributers devised a practice of sending books on credit to academic staff and libraries, through local vendors or jobbers (newcomers in book trade to supply books ‘on approval’ basis). They were allowed to take back books â€Å"not selected† within a credit limit of six months only. Within a few years these jobbers turned into legitimate vendors with book stock of their own which could not be returned to the wholesalers within the stipulated six months credit limit. They start bookshops with the ‘dead stock’ of their own and continue to supply books to the institutions on prevailing terms and conditions. These vendors, having direct contacts with the researchers and faculty members on day to day basis, being the actual selectors in all educational institutions, get offers to publish research monographs of academics. Many of them grabbed these offers on their own terms thereby joining the exclusive club of publishers. We now find several of these vendors are retail bookshop owners, library suppliers and also publishers, all in one. Perhaps it would not be out of place to add a few words of Iain Stevenson9 on the recent trends in British publishing keeping in mind that India is claimed to be the third largest English language publishing country. ‘Since the beginning of this century, there have been strong trends in British publishing in the increase in concentration of publishing and book selling ownership balanced by healthy specialization and the second is an increasing awareness and impact of electronic media and delivery across sectors that have created a large impact across the book trade. In 2004 over 161,000 individual book titles were published in the U.K. as compared to 119,000 in 2001 and over 2. 5 times the number in 1990. Consumers spending on books reach 2436 m. sterling pounds (in 2000 it was 2000 million) out of which 30% was from the export sales. Individual buyers comprised the largest market share, about 70% of total book sale and 20% to academic institutions and corporate bodies’. Indian Legal Deposit Legislation or Delivery of Books Act 1954 and its aftermath The act, commonly referred to as DB Act10 was amended in 1956 to include newspapers and serials under its purview. Annual publishing of books in India during 1950s was small 5. Challenges in Library Management System (CLMS 2012) and below 30,000 titles, whereas by 2010 it is claimed to have exceeded 100,000 [estimated figure obtained from FIP in the absence of any official data from any reliable source] with substantial increase in the coverage of subjects, such as, science and technology. In a recent 11 Annual Report of the Ministry of Culture the National Library claimed to have received 29,875 publications under the DB Act which happens to be only 30% of the estimated total publications as indicated by senior executives of the Library in several professional forums. It was also being pointed out in such gatherings that the other three recipient libraries under this Act, in Chennai, Delhi and Mumbai received even less during the same period. It is worth noting that this was claimed to be the highest figure ever reached by the library ‘due to a special drive’12Intellectual resource (NACONAL 2006). UNESCO Statistical Yearbook is silent on the number of books published annually or the number of libraries in India over the last several decades, although India is one of the major contributors and active member of this international body. This sad state of affaire obviously reached, and continue to be, due to simple negligence of all concern. In most other countries annual publication figures were being provided by organizations declared as recipient/s under the legal deposit or copyright legislation of the country. There must be several reasons for the Library to reach in such a state and to argue, we guess, the limitations of DB Act cannot be the primary cause of it. Rigid administrative and fiscal rules and regulations adopted by the Library to operate under the guidance of the Ministry, is surely to my mind, a major factor but not the main one. The crux of the matter is National Library never received a large number of recent Indian publications under the DB Act. We do not know who all are claimed to be Indian publishers. A sizable number of them are ignorant of DB Act obligations. It is also a fact that number of ‘one time authorpublishers’ is also very high (15% – 20%) especially in vernacular languages. The National Library together with the Central Reference Library committed to bring out Indian National Bibliography(INB) based on the books received under the DB Act, similar in format of the British National Bibliography (BNB). However, neither the British Library (formerly British Museum Library) nor the Indian National Library is in any obligation under their respective legal deposit acts to bring out national bibliographies of books thus received under their respective legal deposit acts. . Bandhopadhyay13 points out,’rules and policy adopted are working smoothly for the British Library but similar regulations unexpectedly, failed to work in our case. One has to keep in mind the fact that default in U. K. is an exception rather than general rule unlike in India’. The provision of penalty for default in DB Act of Rs. 50. 00 sounds just notional. Either revise it to a figure e. g. , Rs. 1000. 00 or 4-5 times of the actual market price of single copy, whichever is higher or just make it voluntary, and hope for the best. The reason of suggesting the latter provision is to avoid the highly cumbersome and built-in procedural delay within our legal system. Since 1958 National Library did not take any legal action against one single defaulter till date. In UK and USA penalty clause is not mentioned as the legal deposit provision is covered under the country’s copyright acts. It is because of this factor legal deposit provision is genuinely more effective and acceptable to authors and publishers of these countries. It would be more realistic to suggest that National Library shall receive one copy of every Indian ‘publication’ and the three other regional repository libraries in Chennai, Delhi and Mumbai shall have the right to claim any current publication in their respective regional languages only, delivered free of cost under the revised provisions of the DB Act. The current practice of demanding four copies of every publication to be delivered free of cost to each of 6. Invited Lectures these four libraries (including National Library) failed to meet our expectations. This is in addition to what publishers have to comply with the demands of different state central libraries under the Press and Book Registration Act of 1867. Moreover, a large volume of these books and other publications, thus received, especially language publications that are not so commonly used in some regions are usually being ‘dumped’ or just temporarily stored as these are of ‘no use’ to the library. This is a colossal wastage of national resource. On the other hand it would not be cost effective to make these so to say, ‘unused books’ (four copies of each) routinely processed, provide costly storage space as well as maintaining them for the posterity in four regional libraries. The National Library shall receive one copy for preservation and access only; create bibliographic records for the benefit of all stakeholders. There are several categories of publications e. g. in English, Hindi, Sanskrit and Urdu (EHSU) languages shall find users in other three regional libraries. Let us accept the real time scenario in terms of availability and accessibility for application of information and communication technologies (ICT) within library systems. Bibliographic data of publications received by the National Library under legal deposit legislation will be accessible to others from INB and National Library catalogue / database online. These three libraries shall buy one copy of all selected books in EHSU languages, from any local vendor / publishers. Additional fund annually spend by three libraries on this account shall be reimbursed from a special annual central government grant. The proposed module is based on the British legal deposit act where the British Library, London receives one copy of every book / publication and the other five libraries (Wales National Library, Aberystwyth, Scottish National Library, Edinburgh, Oxford University, Cambridge University and Trinity College, Dublin) obtain direct from the publishers, one copy of every book of their choice, selected from the weekly list of books received in the British Library under the legal deposit act. We made an attempt to get some estimation of the annual cost of books published under these four (EHSU) ‘common languages’ from INB and the National library that would give an idea of the total fund required for the three regional libraries under the revised provision of the Act. All the three libraries receive some annual grant from the central government. The revised provision in the act will also bring some savings in terms of time and resources, as lesser number of books are to be dealt with by the libraries. Sooner than later, it  will be a reality (within a decade or so) of making available a digital copy of an Indian publication by the National Library online, that was not originally selected or received earlier to a library or an individual from its own stock within or outside the country. The technology is already in experimental stage at various levels. Slowly and gradually a large part of Indian publications will be brought out in e-format only, which will also change our current perception of borrowing or consulting a ‘book’ from a conventional library. Till we reach that stage in India and the transitional period of overlap (20 years? ) we shall carry on with both the systems as we are now have both bullock carts as well as a BMW 7e series cars on our roads for transportation. Indian library systems shall take a longer path and time to switch over to reach this goal. Moreover, any change in our library ‘modernization’ programme shall be fully dependent on application of technological innovations resulting in inevitable 14 acceptance of a never ending process. Thomas Abhram in a recent article expressed, â€Å"ebooks will be hugely cheaper with the removal of paper and inventory costs†¦. All things taken into account, books in print format are not certainly going away ever from circulation. And e-books, from a publishing point of view, are a ‘consummation devoutly to be wished’. We in India, specially the National Library are to continue dealing with print copies of books for several decades together with information resources available in e-books and or in any other format. 7 Challenges in Library Management System (CLMS 2012) Table 1: Books in Indian Languages Received in National Library LANGUAGE 2007 08 Assamese Bengali English Gujarati Hindi Kannada Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Sanskrit Tamil Telugu Urdu Total 97 991 5756 127 2370 687 1500 1400 2661 602 112 3685 248 521 20757 NL/DB Act 2008 – 09 35 1463 5385 348 1722 600 1200 1351 52 576 287 2526 145 304 15994 337 2189 5530 476 1237 877 866 1341 750 000 111 1186 406 292 15598 300 350 450 830 INB (2010) AVERAGE COST. The figures quoted above (Table-1) under Books received by the National Library under DB Act during 2007-08 and 2008-09 and those listed in INB for 2010 (CRL) were obtained from the respective libraries on personal requests. In a paper presented at the NACONAL 2006 by Mandal & Syed Abuzar15 (2006) indicated National Library received about 20,000 books annually during 1990 2002. They claimed the Library received about 30,000 during 2005-06 due to some special drive and about similar number of volumes during 2010-11as recorded in the Annual Report of the Ministry of Culture. Unfortunately we could not get breakdown of figures under each language of 29,875 books received during 2005-06 nor of INB listed figures for 2009 and 2011. The significant gap of Oriya books received during 2007-08 and 2008-09 was due to some special efforts put by the concerned language specialist during 2007. [Note:Average cost of recently published books in English, Hindi, Sanskrit and Urdu (EHSU) languages has been worked out from a sample of books procured by University of Delhi, Central Library, Central Secretariat Library and the U. S. Library of Congress, Book Procurement Centre in Delhi. We made here an estimation of annual additional grant amount to be provided by central government to support the three regional libraries (in Chennai, Delhi and Mumbai) under the proposed revised legal deposit legislation. The National Library shall receive one copy only of every Indian publication free of cost delivered by the publishers, and the three regional public libraries are to purchase one copy of any book (in EHSU languages) selected by a library from open market. The three libraries are entitled, under the law, to receive free of cost, one copy of a book published in respective regional languages. It is estimated that each library shall selectively acquire per year about 30,000 new Indian publications (10,000 EHSU + 20,000 in respective regional languages) out of about 90,000 books published annually. It means, central government shall reimburse annually the cost of 30,000 books in EHSU languages where average cost of a set of four EHSU books is Rs. 2000 or Rs. 60 million (30,000 x2000 = 60,000,000). In addition, another 10m (Rs. 10,000,000) would be required to cover annual subscription cost of EHSU periodicals and newspapers. Thus we reach an estimated figure of Rs. 70m or 7crore (add another 10% 8 Invited Lectures annually for inflation). These figures are being presented to get some idea of the extra cost we propose to pass on to the central government exchequer. ] If this revised guidelines are adopted in our legal deposit act (now under revision) by taking over the extra burden of book fund of the three regional libraries by the central exchequer then we could surely expect of getting better cooperation from the publishing fraternity in fulfilling their responsibilities towards the provisions of the revised act. Group of publishers bringing out EHSU language publications are to supply only TWO free copies, like all other publishers, one to the National Library and the other to Parliament Library. The only sensible expectation of the publishers from the CRL / National Library is to bring out a comprehensive, up to date online INB, listing all currently published titles thus received under the act and provide facilities of easy access to the readers within a reasonable time frame. Under the revised provision of the act, there is a strong opinion that Chennai based Connemara Public Library shall receive one copy free of cost, of every publication in Dravidian languages (e. g. Kannada, Malayalam, Tamil and Telugu). Similarly Central Library, Mumbai shall receive books in all western Indian languages, such as Marathi, Konkani, Gujarati, etc. , and Delhi Public Library shall get publications in Punjabi, Kashmiri, etc. as commonly spoken in the three respective regions. National Library is to receive one copy of all the publications. In addition to the respective regional languages publications these three libraries shall purchase one copy of publications of their choice, in English, Hindi, Sanskrit and Urdu (EHSU), from publishers / local vendors. Total annual cost of this category of publications shall be reimbursed from central exchequer. With the introduction of advanced network technologies, libraries shall be benefitted for not to process (Catalogue / classify highest cost factor) these books as relevant data can be downloaded from INB. The second alternative is to incorporate legal deposit provision within the revised copyright legislation as done in the USA and UK. It is possible to reduce the number of defaulting Indian publishers to bare minimum. Only very recently the National Library claimed to have increased intake of publications under the Act by extensive promotional work through the media and sending direct appeal to publishers that have helped it in bringing more and more publishers within the DB Act net. Secondly, if the total number of copies of each title (an average of seven copies) under both PR and DB Acts could be drastically reduced to minimum two only, there is a hope of getting full support and cooperation of Indian publishers to go by the rule book. Third and the most important factor is to make INB up to date and bring it out at regular frequency (monthly! ) with the target of putting it online within a scheduled time frame. What we need is determination and political will to make the India’s National Library the effective hub of Indian library systems. Similarly, there are several other issues, listed below, which also require attention by both the National Library and appropriate government agencies that shall help in making India proud of its National Library. Central Reference Library (CRL): In 1971 administration of the CRL was separated from the National Library by making it a subordinate office under the Department of Culture. This was an ideal opportunity we missed, for shifting the CRL to Delhi. In the middle of 1970s Central Government created a new wing of the Central Secretariat Library (CSL) and named it as Tulsi Sadan Library to collect and provide access exclusively to all Indian language (excluding English) publications, to commemorate the 400th year of Tulsidasa (of Ramcharitmanas fame). CSL could have been merged with CRL and allowed it to operate from some temporary location till a permanent ‘home’ could be found or built at the proposed site opposite to the National Museum on 9 Challenges in Library Management System (CLMS 2012) Janpath, originally proposed by Edwin Lutyens. CRL would have been the natural choice of declaring it as the fourth recipient public library in Delhi, under the DBAct (instead of making the Delhi Public Library with reluctance, during the 1970s). Ministry of Culture is now under heavy pressure for shifting the Central Secretariat Library out of Shastri Bhavan complex due to severe space crunch and security issues. It is a fact that CSL has lost its original objective of serving information needs of all central secretariat units. Today all the ministries are having their own libraries with specialized collections to cater their respective information needs. It now serves as a general reading room for Shastri Bhavan employees. Reading for pleasure is not so common with the government employees. Central Secretariat Library is administratively a subordinate office of the Ministry of Culture. A large section of its regular visitors, viz. postgraduate students and research scholars have stopped visiting the library due to overwhelming security checks involved in getting through Shastri Bhavan. Recently several thousand volumes of its rich older collections were being disposed under executive orders to make room for babus of the Ministry. It could have been easier to find a suitable location for CRL (incorporating CSL) in Delhi during 1970s. Attempts were also being made during the 1970s and 1980s to merge the CRL with the National Library but these were also stalled by staff associations of the two libraries. During this period, management of the National Library was weak as a result, library service also suffered considerably. Central government in Delhi continued to be indecisive in taking appropriate steps while local library administration in Kolkata failed to deal with the day to day issues in any effective manner. It was more of a failure of the management both at the operational as well as policy making levels. The government allowed the National Library to drift away in the absence of any suitable action plan in place to overcome the crisis. Nor there was any move or pressure from any other corner – library professionals, media or library users’ group. This long drawn uncertainty and lack of effective management control within the National Library campus directly affected services and administration of Central Reference Library thereby putting publication of INB also on the back burner. Indian National Bibliography (INB): It started in 1958 following the British National Bibliography (BNB) format. To overcome the complexity of multi-script languages it adopted Romanization of all scripts with the descriptive part of each entry in English. This has created problems for many who are not familiar with Roman script or English language. The job of printing INB monthly issues was given exclusively to the Government of India Press in Kolkata that failed to realise, from the beginning, the importance of maintaining the production and delivery schedule. After years of persuasion by CRL the Ministry allowed printing of INB through private press. Cataloguing of every title, received by the National Library under BD Act, is first to be acknowledged by the Library then sent to CRL on record, where it will be catalogued once according to INB practices and then books shall be sent back to the National Library for re-cataloguing according to its own specified rules followed by due processing for storage. This long drawn administrative procedural factors and duplication of cataloguing  process have claimed to be a major cause of delay from the date of receipt of the publication to the time its record is found in INB followed by making it available to readers of National Library This delay factor has also indirectly discouraged publishers to follow the DB Act guidelines strictly on the pretext of not finding INB to be a regular and up to date periodical either as a reliable check list of current Indian publications or a selection tool for libraries and other stakeholders; nor their publications are found in any bibliographic record of the National Library on time. National Library takes its own time, sometime nearly two years, to allow access to the books received under the DB Act. Importance of promotion and marketing of INB did never get much support from the concerned authorities. Adoption of appropriate technologies at 10 Invited Lectures different levels of administration and access to resources has been continuously lagged behind. Most national libraries of the world are having full responsibilities of preserving and allowing access to their collections by providing adequate indexing and other access tools, e.  g. national bibliographies, subject bibliographies, annotated catalogues of special collections, many of these are now accessible online on their respective websites. We must allow the National Library for setting up National Bibliographic Division with full control of bringing out INB and to provide other bibliographic services covering pan-India in appropriate standardized formats, as required from time to time. By taking full advantage of technological advances supported by a group of committed well qualified staff the Library would be able to help in both improving and widening the scope of services to individuals as well as to provide back-up services to a large number of academic and public libraries in and outside the country. For example, the day Indian libraries in general adopt the same processing format for all new titles listed in INB,India can claim to have won half the battle in modernizing our library services and systems. Without going into details one can only highlight the fact of centralized processing initiated and applied in most national libraries which have directly and indirectly helped respective library systems of these countries. We are well aware of the fact that both the CRL and INB are as if, linked with the DB Act by an umbilical cord that needs to be focused and dealt with separately for a drastic revision. Proposals l l Title of the revised act may be â€Å"Delivery of Publications (National Library) Act. Definition of Publications shall include – all printed documents, such as, books, periodicals, serials, newspapers, e-publications including audio books, CD books, DVDs and digital online publications and /or any other reformatted or original document produced for commercial distribution, e. g. microform documents. Only one copy of all publications shall be delivered free of charge, direct to the National Library of India (or at an address specified by the Library). The act shall also make adequate provision for the three regional libraries based in Chennai, Delhi and Mumbai to receive on. Challenges Library Management System. (2016, Oct 11).